The tooth (pulp) has a unique composition. Various biomaterials are used by dentists to treat a tooth. Although the cytotoxic response of the tooth to biomaterials has been extensively studied, there is a shortage of "in vitro" model systems that simulate dental treatment with biomaterials. However, an even better understanding of the influence of biomaterials on living tooth (pulp) is desirable. To address this shortage, a tooth-on-chip model system has been developed. The tooth-on-chip is a new platform that replicates near-physiological conditions of the pulp-dentin interface and enables live cell imaging to study the response of the tooth pulp to biomaterials.